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GLS_Double America 2_2014_02_9255

Glenn Ligon

Photo: Paul Mpagi Sepuya

Photo: Paul Mpagi Sepuya

Born in the Bronx, New York, in 1960, Glenn Ligon received a BA from Wesleyan University in 1982. His early practice was grounded in painting, and his canvases of this period built upon the legacies of such Abstract Expressionist artists as Philip Guston, Cy Twombly, Robert Rauschenberg, and Jasper Johns. In1984 – 1985, Ligon spent an academic year in the Whitney Museum of American Art’s Independent Study Program, developing a series of representational drawings of iconic sculptures by European artists such as Alberto Giacometti and Constantin Brâncuși, juxtaposed against images of African American hair products rendered in acrylic and ink.

This early deployment of objects as signifiers did not fully meet Ligon’s desire for expression: ‘I had a crisis of sorts when I realized there was too much of a gap between what I wanted to say and the means I had to say it with.’ Nevertheless, these works crystallized Ligon’s commitment to using signifiers within formalist procedures as a means to explore the complexities of deep cultural tensions.

Soon Ligon began incorporating text into his paintings, using the stenciled words that would become a hallmark of his oeuvre, in order to say more. Just as Guston returned to figuration after a long exploration in Abstract Expressionist painting as a response to the Vietnam War, Ligon pursued language as a means of commentary on the cultural milieu of the 1980s and ‘90s, and more specifically on African American identity within a turbulent landscape. Among key works from this period is ‘Untitled (I Am a Man)’ (1988), an oil and enamel painting derived from a black-and-white photograph by Ernest C. Withers, depicting black sanitation workers striking in Memphis and carrying identical signs printed with the text ‘I AM A MAN.’ These words still carry the force of a heavy assertion: a demand for visibility and humanity in response not only to the injustices thrust upon African Americans in the present time, but also to the history of slavery, the effects of which continue to permeate the entire American experience.

Ligon’s 1991 work ‘Untitled (I Am an Invisible Man)’ borrows lines from the 1955 Ralph Ellison novel ‘Invisible Man.’ Ligon strategically blends, muddles, and merges written words in oil stick and graphite, thereby juxtaposing presence and absence, comprehension and illegibility; by claiming these words in a new context, he points to the possibility of how meaning can slip or evolve. Works such as ‘Untitled (I Feel Most Colored When I Am thrown Against a Sharp White Background)’ (1990), which draws text from Zora Neale Hurston’s 1928 essay ‘How It Feels to Be Colored Me,’ or ‘Untitled (There is a consciousness we all have…)’ (1988), in which Ligon uses a comment made in the New York Times about African American artist Martin Puryear, engage not only the language itself but the visual expression of that language to comment on the subject matter. Painted language becomes the construct of the self, and the stencil is a mechanism of reconstruction, with both pop and expressionist qualities, allowing for a complication of Ligon’s address. In the moments of blurred illegibility, Ligon alludes to the systemic exclusion and erasure of African Americans – including the ways in which black artists have been situated in the margins of canonical art history.

Over the past two and a half decades, Ligon has expanded his practice radically to incorporate new media and structures in large-scale installations, prints, photographs, and sculptures. While sweepingly broad in style and composition, these works engage not only with text-based resources but found images, reworked by the artist in order to amplify the conversation: from the re-appropriation of Robert Mapplethorpe’s photographs of black male nudes, to silkscreen paintings from the Nation of Islam’s Million Man March in Washington D.C., to his seminal ‘Untitled’ (2008), a neon work that spells out the word ‘AMERICA.’ Expressed through this broader range of mediums, Ligon’s engagement with words takes on greater physicality. In ‘Self- Portrait Exaggerating My Black Features and Self-Portrait Exaggerating My White Features’ (1998), Ligon riffs upon Adrian Piper’s seminal work ‘Self-Portrait Exaggerating My Negroid Features’ (1981) to address the complexities in our perceptions of race using two towering images made from the exact same silkscreen, with the title of the work printed clearly at the bottom of each image. The artist appears here in a rare instance of self-portraiture, provoking questions about the gaze and racist stereotyping.

In 2004, Ligon wrote a major essay for Artforum titled ‘Black Light: David Hammons and the Poetics of Emptiness.’ Shortly after, inspired by the notion of working with light, he presented his first neon relief: ‘Warm Broad Glow’ (2005) outlining the words ‘negro sunshine’ in neon letters. Ligon has continued to question the relationship between light and dark in his work, most recently using neon in the handwriting of his friends and colleagues in a work titled ‘Some Black Parisians’ (2019), included in the exhibition ‘Black Models: From Géricault to Matisse’ at the Musée d’Orsay in Paris. This sculptural work displays the names of black models whose identities are the focus of the exhibition. While centering and celebrating the individuals whose likenesses are rendered in these works, Ligon also uses the phrase ‘nom inconnu’ (name unknown) to remind viewers that many of these subjects still remain lost to history.

Ligon engages the state of the world – and urges us to do the same – by posing questions rather than proposing answers. His art demonstrates the ways in which a given subject has permeated culture over time, magnetizing our attention to the mutability of images and our perceptions of them. His questions concern not only the identity of his subject; he interrogates the viewer, the history, the institution, and the cultural context by rendering a portrait of America as a concept, a place, and a nation.

The artist’s important recent exhibitions include ‘Glenn Ligon: Encounters and Collisions,’ a curatorial project organized with Nottingham Contemporary and Tate Liverpool (2015), and ‘Blue Black,’ an exhibition curated by the artist at the Pulitzer Arts Foundation in St. Louis (2017). A retrospective of Ligon’s work, ‘Glenn Ligon: America,’ organized by Scott Rothkopf, opened at the Whitney Museum of American Art in March 2011 and traveled to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (2011) and the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth (2012).

Ligon’s work has been included in major international exhibitions such as the Biennale di Venezia, Venice, Italy (1997, 2015); Berlin Biennale, Berlin, Germany (2014); Istanbul Biennale, Istanbul, Turkey (2011); Documenta XI, Kassel, Germany (2002); Gwangju Biennale, Gwangju, South Korea (2000); and the Whitney Biennial, New York NY (1991, 1993). He has received numerous awards for his work, including the Joan Mitchell Foundation Grant (1997), the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship (2003), the Skowhegan Medal for Painting (2006), and the Studio Museum’s Joyce Alexander Wein Artist Prize (2009).

He is also represented by Regen Projects in Los Angeles, Thomas Dane in London, and Chantal Crousel in Paris.

Biography

Born New York, NY, 1960

Education

1985 Whitney Museum Independent Study Program, New York NY
1982 Wesleyan University, Middletown CT
1980 Rhode Island School of Design, Providence RI

Resides Lives and works in New York

Selected Awards, Residencies and Fellowships

2018 Honorary Degree, The New School, New York NY

2017 Archives of American Art Medal

2016 American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellow

2013 18th Annual Medal Award, School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston MA

2012 International Association of Art Critics Award

2010 United States Artists Fellowship, Los Angeles CA

2009 Studio Museum's Joyce Alexander Wein Artist Prize, New York NY

2007 Creative Capital Arts Writers Grant

2006 Skowhegan Medal for Painting, New York NY
Academy Awards in Art, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York NY

2003 John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship, New York NY

2001 DAAD, Berlin, Germany

1999-00 Walker Art Center Residency, Minneapolis MN

1998 ArtPace International Artists-in-Residence Program, San Antonio TX

1997 Joan Mitchell Foundation Grant

1994 Residency, Rockefeller Foundation, Bellagio Study Center, Bellagio, Italy

1991 National Endowment for the Arts, Visual Artist Fellowship, Painting

1990 Art Matters, Inc. Fellowship/Dewar's Young Artist's Recognition Award

1989-90 P.S. 1 National Studio Program, The Clocktower, New York NY

1989 National Endowment for the Arts, Visual Artist Fellowship, Drawing

1982 National Endowment for the Arts, Curatorial Internship,
The Studio Museum in Harlem, New York NY

Solo Exhibitions

2019 Des Parisiens Noirs, Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.
Glenn Ligon: Selections from the Marciano Collection, Marciano Art Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.
Glenn Ligon: To be a Negro in this country is really never to be looked at., Maria & Alberto De La Cruz Art Gallery, Georgetown University, Washington D.C.
Untitled (America)/Debris Field/Synecdoche/Notes for a Poem on the Third World, Regen Projects, Los Angeles CA.

2018 Debris Field/Notes for a Poem on the Third World/Soleil Negre, Galerie Chantal Crousel, Paris, France (catalogue).
Tutto Poteva, Nella Poesia, Avere Una Soluzione / In Poetry, A Solution To Everything, Thomas Dane, Naples, Italy (brochure).

2017 Glenn Ligon, Baltimore Museum of Art, MD.

2016 Glenn Ligon, A Small Band, ReBuild Foundation, Chicago, IL.
Glenn Ligon: Untitled (Bruise/Blues), Michael Stevenson Gallery, Johannesburg, South Africa.
What we said the last time, Luhring Augustine, New York, NY.
We need to wake up cause that's what time it is, Luhring Augustine Bushwick, NY.

2015 Live, Regen Projects, Los Angeles, CA.
Well, it's bye-bye If you call that gone, Regen Projects, Los Angeles, CA.

2014 Glenn Ligon: Call and Response, Camden Arts Centre, London, UK.
Glenn Ligon: Come Out, Thomas Dane Gallery, London, UK (catalogue).
Glenn Ligon: Narratives, Schmucker Art Gallery, Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, PA.

2013 Glenn Ligon, Rat Hole Gallery, Tokyo, Japan.

2012 Glenn Ligon: Neon, Luhring Augustine, New York, NY (catalogue).

2011 America, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY (catalogue); Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, CA; Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, TX.
Glenn Ligon: Recent Prints, Greg Kucera Gallery, Seattle, WA.

2010 Neither Here nor There, Michael Stevenson Gallery, Cape Town, South Africa.

2009 ‘Nobody’ and Other Songs, Thomas Dane Gallery, London, UK.
Off Book, Regen Projects II, Los Angeles, CA.

2008 Figure/Paysage/Marine, Galerie Yvon Lambert, Paris, France (catalogue).
Love and Theft, Power House Memphis, TN.

2007 No Room (Gold), Regen Projects II, Los Angeles, CA.
Unauthorized, Bill Hodges Gallery, New York, NY (catalogue).

2006 Brilliant Corners, Thomas Dane Gallery, London, UK.
Grossman Gallery, Lafayette College, Easton, PA.
We Had Everything Before Us–We Had Nothing Before Us, Galerie Yvon Lambert, Paris, France.

2005 Drawings, Baldwin Gallery, Aspen.
Glenn Ligon – Some Changes, The Power Plant Center for Contemporary Art, Toronto, Ontario Canada (catalogue); Contemporary Art Museum, Houston, TX; The Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh, PA; Wexner Center for the Arts, Columbus, OH; Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Mudam—Musée d’Art Moderne Grand-Duc Jean, Luxembourg.

2004 Circa 1971, ’72 or ’73, The Gallery at Dieu Donné Papermill, New York, NY (brochure).
Text Paintings: 1990–2004, Regen Projects, Los Angeles, CA (brochure).

2003 Annotations, web-based project, Dia Center for the Arts, New York, NY.
Going There, D’Amelio Terras, New York, NY.

2002 Glenn Ligon, Anthony Meier Fine Arts, San Francisco, CA.

2001 Colored, D’Amelio Terras, New York, NY.
Portraits and Not Portraits, Kunstverein München, Germany (brochure).
Stranger, The Studio Museum in Harlem, NY (catalogue).

2000 Coloring: New Work by Glenn Ligon, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN (catalogue).
Currents 81: Glenn Ligon, Saint Louis Art Museum, MO (brochure).

1998 International Artist-In-Residence, ArtPace, San Antonio, TX (brochure).
Miami Arts Project, Public Installation, FL (brochure).
Nothing Under the Sun, Max Protetch Gallery, New York, NY.
Unbecoming, Institute of Contemporary Art at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (catalogue).

1997 Day of Absence, Ezra and Cecile Zilkha Gallery, Center for the Arts, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT (brochure).
Runaways, MOSAIC: Museum Study Center, Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, University of Florida, Gainesville (brochure).

1996 The Evidence of Things Not Seen: Drawings by Glenn Ligon, Brooklyn Museum, NY (brochure).

1995 Glenn Ligon, Des Moines Art Center, IA (brochure).
Photos and Notes, Max Protetch Gallery, New York, NY.
Skin Tight, MIT List Visual Arts Center, Cambridge, MA.

1994 Project Room, Ruth Bloom Gallery, Santa Monica, CA.

1993 Project Room, Ruth Bloom Gallery, Santa Monica, CA.

1992 Glenn Ligon/MATRIX 120, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, CT (brochure).
Paintings, Max Protetch Gallery, New York, NY.

1991 Project Room: Glenn Ligon, Jack Tilton Gallery, New York, NY.
White Room: Glenn Ligon, White Columns, New York, NY.

1990 How It Feels to be Colored Me: A Project by Glenn Ligon, BACA Downtown, Brooklyn, NY.
Open Studios, National Studio Program Exhibition Series, P.S.1 Institute of Contemporary Art at The Clocktower Gallery, New York, NY.

1982 Davison Art Center, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT.

Curatorial Projects

2017 Blue Black, Pulitzer Arts Foundation, St. Louis, MO (catalogue).

2016 Entanglements, Luhring Augustine, New York, NY.

2015 Glenn Ligon: Encounters and Collisions, curated with Alex Farquharson and Francesco Manacorda, Nottingham Contemporary; traveled to Tate Liverpool, UK (catalogue).

2012 Contact: Gordon Parks, Ralph Ellison, and “Invisible Man”, Howard Greenberg Gallery, New York, NY.

2007 Karen Azoulay, CUE Foundation, NY (catalogue).

2006 Have Another Piece: ‘Just a little piece…smaller…smaller…’, Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh, PA.

2000 Art in Our Time: 1950 to the Present (Givens Collection), Walker Art Center (Andersen Window Gallery), Minneapolis, MN (brochure).

Group Exhibitions

2019 Black Refractions: Highlights from The Studio Museum in Harlem, Studio Museum, Harlem, NY(catalogue). Traveling to Museum of the African Diaspora, San Francisco; Gibbes Museum of Art, Charleston; Kalamazoo Institute of Arts; Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton; Frye Art Museum, Seattle; Utah Museum of Fine Arts, Salt Lake City.
From Theory to Practice: Artistic Legacies of the Whitney Independent Study Program, University Hall Gallery at the University of Massachusetts Boston, MA.
Get Up, Stand Up! Somerset House, London, England.
God Made My Face: A Collective Portrait of James Baldwin, David Zwirner, New York, NY.
How the light gets in, Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithica, NY.
In a Few Words, Sikkema Jenkinns & CO, New York, NY.
Inaugural Exhibition, Ruby City, San Antonio, TX.
Prints and Editions, Luhring Augustine, New York, NY.
Prisoner of Love, Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago, IL.
Some Bodies: Gober, Ligon, Prince, Binghamton University Art Museum, Binghamton, NY.

2018 A Journey That Wasn't, The Broad Museum, Los Angeles, CA.
Adam McEwen Selects: Exhibition and Sale to Benefit the Foundation for Contemporary Arts, Gladstone Gallery, New York, NY.

(cont'd) Bending Light: Neon Art 1965 to Now, Neuberger Museum of Art, Purchase College, SUNY, NY.
Both, and, Stevenson Gallery, Cape Town and Johannesburg, South Africa.
Chi Utopia mangia le mele / Those who Utopia eat apples. From dream to project in four steps, ArtVerona, Verona, Italy (catalogue).
Dialogues: Tim Rollins & K.O.S. and Glenn Ligon, Bronx Museum of the Arts, NY.
DO I HAVE TO DRAW YOU A PICTURE?, Heong Gallery, Downing College, Cambridge, UK (catalogue).
Edge of Visibility, International Print Center, New York, NY.
From Enslavement to Mass Incarceration, The Legacy Museum, Montgomery, AL.
Graphic Revolution: American Prints 1960 to Now, Saint Louis Art Museum, MO (catalogue).
Histórias afro-atlânticas, Museu de Arte de São Paulo, Brazil (catalogue).
In Tribute to Jack Tilton: A Selection from 35 Years, Tilton Gallery, New York, NY.
Jason Moran, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN (catalogue). Traveling to ICA Boston, Wexner Center for the Arts, Columbus; Whitney Museum, NY.
Michael Jackson: On the Wall, National Portrait Gallery, London, UK (catalogue); traveling to Grand Palais, Paris, France; Bundeskunsthalle, Bonn, Germany; Espoo Museum of Modern Art, Espoo, Finland.
MoMA AT NGV: 130 Years of Modern and Contemporary Art, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia (catalogue).
Nothing Stable under Heaven, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, CA.
Remember to React: 60 Years of Collecting, NSU Art Museum, Fort Lauderdale, FL.
Sculpture, Luhring Augustine, New York, NY.
Second Sight: The Paradox of Vision in Contemporary Art, Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick, ME (catalogue).
The Street. Where the World Is Made, MAXXI Museo Nazionale delle Arti del XXI Secolo, Rome, Italy (catalogue).
Studio Visit: Selected Gifts from Agnes Gund, Museum of Modern Art, NY.
Reds, Mnuchin Gallery, New York, NY (catalogue).
Resident Whiteness, The Kitchen, New York, NY.
Riots: Slow Cancellation of the Future, IFA Galerie Berlin, Germany.
Walls Turned Sideways: Artists Confront the Criminal Justice System, Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, TX (catalogue).

2017 20/20: The Studio Museum in Harlem and Carnegie Museum of Art, Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, PA.
All Things Being Equal..., Zeitz MOCAA, Cape Town, South Africa.
An Incomplete History of Protest: Selections from the Whitney’s Collection, 1940-2017, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY.
American dream: pop to present, British Museum, London, UK (catalogue).
Blue Black, Pulitzer Foundation, St. Louis, MO (catalogue).
Bodies of Work, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.
Change of State, Essex Street Gallery, New York, NY.
Divided States of America, Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Center, New York, NY.
Doubles, Dobros, Pliegues, Pares, Twins, Mitades, The Warehouse, Dallas, TX (catalogue).
Elements of Vogue: A Case Study on Radical Performance, CA2M Centro de Arte Dos de Mayo, Madrid, Spain.
Excerpt, Studio Museum Harlem, NY.
Fast Forward: Painting from the 1980s, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY.
Frans Masereel and Contemporary Art: Images of Resistance, Mu.ZEE Ostend, Belgium (catalogue).
Harlem: Found Ways, The Ethelbert Cooper Gallery of African and African American Art, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (catalogue).
Hold: A Meditation on Black Aesthetics, Princeton University Art Museum, NJ.
The Humours, Monash University Museum of Art (MUMA), Melbourne, Australia (catalogue).
An Incomplete History of Protest: Selections from the Whitney’s Collection, 1940-2017, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY.
The Intricacies of Love, curated by Phyllis Rosenzweig, Bronx Arts Space, NY (brochure).
The Legacy of Lynching: Confronting Racial Terror in America, Brooklyn Museum, NY; traveled to Cantor Fitzgerald Gallery, Haverford, PA.
Making History Visible: Of American Myths and National Heroes, Princeton University Art Museum, NJ.
Making Home: Contemporary Art from the DIA, The Detroit Institute of Arts, MI.
Milwaukee Collects, Milwaukee Art Museum, WI.
Minimalism and Beyond, Mnuchin Gallery, New York, NY (catalogue).
Off the Shelf: Modern & Contemporary Artists' Books, Baltimore Museum of Art, MD.
Picture Industry, curated by Walead Beshty, Center for Curatorial Studies, Bard College, New York, NY; traveled to LUMA Foundation Arles, France (catalogue).
Ready. Fire! Aim, Hall Art Foundation, Reading, VT.
The Restless Earth, Fondazione Nicola Trussardi, Palazzo della Triennale, Milan, Italy (catalogue).
So Lightly Here, Paul Petro Contemporary Art, Toronto, ON.
Solidary and Solitary: The Joyner / Giuffrida Collection, Ogden Museum of Southern Art, New Orleans, LA; traveled to Nasher Museum of Art, Durham, NC; Snite Museum of Art, Notre Dame, IN; Smart Museum of Art, Chicago, IL; Baltimore Museum of Art, MA; Berkeley Art Museum, CA.
Sonic Rebellion: Music as Resistance, Museum of Contemporary Art Detroit, MI (catalogue).
Third Space, Birmingham Museum of Art, AL.
Unpacking: The Marciano Collection, Marciano Art Foundation, Los Angeles, CA (catalogue).
Urban Planning: Contemporary Art and the City 1966–2017, Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis, MO.
We need to talk..., Petzel Gallery, New York, NY (catalogue).
What Absence Is Made Of, Smithsonian Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, DC.
What are the Clouds?, Kunstgebäude Stuttgart, Germany.
What I Loved: Selected Works from the '90s, Regen Projects, Los Angeles, CA.
WORD: Text in Contemporary Art, Jamestown Arts Center, RI.
You & I, A4 Arts Foundation, Cape Town, South Africa.

2016 65 Works Selected by James Welling, David Zwirner, NY.
A Deeper Dive, Leslie Lohman Museum of Gay and Lesbian Art, NY.
A History. Contemporary Art from the Centre Pompidou, Haus der Kunst, Munich, Germany.
Becoming Animal/Becoming Landscape, Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Between the World and Me: Contemporary African American Artists Respond to Ta-Nehisi Coates, Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art, Denver, CO.
Black and White with a Splash, Dubner Projects, Lugano, Switzerland.
Blackness in Abstraction, Pace Gallery, NY (catalogue).
Cock, Paper, Scissors, ONE National Gay & Lesbian Archives at the USC Libraries, Los Angeles, CA (catalogue).
Entanglements, Luhring Augustine, New York, NY.
George Grosz: Politics and His Influence, David Nolan Gallery, New York, NY.
Glenn Ligon: Encounters and Collisions, curated with Alex Farquharson and Francesco Manacorda, Nottingham Contemporary; traveled to Tate Liverpool, UK (catalogue).
Good Dreams Bad Dreams; Selections from the Aishti Foundation Collection, Aishti Foundation, Beirut, Lebanon.
Human Interest: Portraits from the Whitney’s Collection, Whitney Museum of American Art, NY.
Identity, Amon Carter Museum of Art, Fort Worth, TX.
Invisible Adversaries, Center for Curatorial Studies Museum, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY.
L.A. Exuberance: New Gifts by Artists, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, CA.
Let There Be Light, Jessica Silverman Gallery, San Francisco, CA.
Lexicon, Gagosian Gallery, Paris, France (brochure).
Present Tense: Prints from the Collection of Jordan D. Schnitzer and His Family Foundation, Montana Museum of Art & Culture, Missoula, MT.
Progressive Praxis, De la Cruz Collection, Miami, FL.
Pure Pulp: Contemporary Artists Working in Paper at Dieu Donné, Ruth and Elmer Wellin Museum, Hamilton College, NY (catalogue).
REMIX: Themes & Variations in African American Art, Columbia Museum of Art, NY.
Singing Our History: People and Places of Red Lake Nation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
Statements: African American Art from the Museum’s Collection, The Museum of Fine Arts Houston, TX.
Surface Area: Selections from the Permanent Collection, The Studio Museum in Harlem, NY.
The Color Line: African-American Artists and the civil rights in the United States, The Musée du quai Branly - Jacques Chirac, Paris, France.
The Making of a Fugitive, Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago, Il.
The Revolution will not be Gray, Aspen Art Museum, CO (brochure).
The Soul of Black Art: A Collector's View, Upfor Gallery, Portalnd, OR.
This is a Portrait If I Say So: Re-imagining Representation in American Art, 1912—Today, Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick, ME (catalogue).
Vision and Justice, Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA.
Who We Be, Cantor Arts Center Stanford University, CA.
With Open Eyes: The Wake Forest University Student Union Collection of Contemporary Art, Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art, Winston-Salem, NC.
Wordplay: Matthias Buchinger's Drawings from the Collection of Ricky Jay, Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

2015 50 for 50: Gifts on the Occasion of LACMA's Anniversary, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, CA.
75 Gifts for 75 Years, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN.
A Life Journey: Melva Bucksbaum & Raymond Learsy Collection, The Granary, Sharon, CT.
All the Worlds Futures: 56th International Venice Biennale, Giardini-Central Pavilion, Italy (catalogue).
America Is Hard to See, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY.
Andy Warhol to Kara Walker: Picturing the Iconic / From the Collections of Jordan D. Schnitzer and the Jordan Schnitzer Family Foundation, Sonoma County Museum, Santa Rosa, CA.
Apparitions: Frottages and Rubbings from 1860 to Now, Hammer Museum, Los Angeles, CA; traveled to the Menil Collection, Houston, TX (catalogue).
Art AIDS America, Tacoma Art Museum, WA (catalogue); traveled to The Bronx Museum of the Arts, NY.
Black: Color, Material, Concept, The Studio Museum in Harlem, NY.
By the Book, Sean Kelly, New York, NY.
Carte Blanche to Luhring Augustine, Galerie Patrick Seguin, Paris, France.
Cavaliers Collect: A Celebration of 80 Years of Art at the Bayley, The Fralin Museum, University of Virginia, Charlottesville (brochure).
Collecting and Sharing: Trevor Fairbrother, John T. Kirk, and the Hood Museum of Art, Hood Museum of Art, Darthmouth College, Hanover, NH (catalogue).
Collection Intervention: Ellen Gallagher’s DeLuxe, Addison Gallery of American Art, Andover, VA.
Come As You Are, Montclair Art Museum, NJ (catalogue).
First Edition: Mario Merz Prize Finalists, Fondazione Merz, Torino, Italy (catalogue).
Greater New York, MoMA PS1, New York, NY (catalogue).
I am a Lie and I am Gold, Yossi Milo Gallery, New York, NY.
Laugh-in: Art, Comedy, Performance, Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego, San Diego, CA.
Museum Studies, The Berman Museum of Art, Ursinus College, Collegeville, PA.
New Skin, Aïshti Foundation, Jal el Dib, Lebanon.
Once Upon A Time and Now, curated by Ian Alteveer, The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Community Center, New York, NY.
Open This End: Contemporary Art from the Collection of Blake Byrne, Nasher Museum of Art, Duke University, Durham, NC (catalogue).
Painting 2.0: Expression in the Information Age, Museum Brandhorst, Munich, Germany (catalogue).
Portraits and Other Likenesses from SFMOMA, Museum of the African Diaspora, San Francisco, CA.
Represent: 200 Years of African American Art, The Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA (catalogue).
San Diego Collects, Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego, CA.
Showing Off: Recent Modern & Contemporary Acquisitions, Denver Art Museum, CO.
Storylines: Contemporary Art at the Guggenheim, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY.
The Art of Our Time, Museum of Contemporary Art Los Angeles, CA.
The Freedom Principle: Experiments in Art and Music, 1965 to Now, Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago, IL (catalogue).
The Inaugural Installation, The Broad Museum Los Angeles, CA (catalogue).
The World is Made of Stories, Astrup Fearnley Museet, Oslo, Norway.
Transcending Material, Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, MA.
Wild Noise: Artwork from The Bronx Museum of the Arts and El Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Bronx Museum of Art, NY; traveled to Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, Cuba.
Word by Word, Luxembourg & Dayan, London, UK.
Words, Words, Words An Exhibition of Text Based Artwork, Elizabeth Leach Gallery, Portland, OR.
You've Got to Know the Rules... to Break Them, De La Cruz Collection Contemporary Space, Miami, FL.

2014 8th Berlin Biennale for Contemporary Art, Germany.
Beneath the Surface, De La Cruz Contemporary Art Space, Miami, FL.
Bloodflames Revisited, curated by Phong Bui, Paul Kasmin Gallery, New York, NY.
Civil Rights: We have it in our power to begin the world over again, Void, Derry, Ireland.
Danjuma Collection: One Man's Trash (is Another Man's Treasure), 33 Fitzroy Square, London, UK.
In Black and White: Prints form Africa and the Diaspora, Victoria & Albert Museum, London, England.
in print / imprint: works from the permanent collection, Bronx Museum of the Arts, NY.
Literary Devices, Fisher Landau Center for Art, New York, NY.
Man in the Mirror, Vanhaerents Art Collection, Brussels, Belgium.
More Material, curated by Duro Olowu, Salon 94, New York, NY.
Other Ways; Other Times Influences of African-American Tradition from St. Louis Collections, Philip Slein Gallery, St. Louis, MO.
Point of View: Contemporary African American Art from the Elliot and Kimberly Perry Collection, Flint Institute of Arts, MI (catalogue).
Rauschenberg: Collecting & Connecting, Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University, NC.
Reliable Tension, Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, CT.
Somos Libres II: Works from The Mario Testino Collection, Pinacoteca Gianni e Marella Agnelli, Turin, Italy.
Speaking of People: Ebony, Jet and Contemporary Art, The Studio Museum in Harlem, NY (catalogue).
Stars + Stripes: American Art of the 21st Century from the Goldberg Collection, Bathurst Regional Art Gallery, Bathurst, Australia (catalogue); travels to Grafton Regional Art Gallery, Grafton, Australia; Manly Art Gallery and Museum, Sydney, Australia; Cowra Regional Art Gallery, Cowra, Australia; Manning Regional Art Gallery, Taree, Australia; Western Plains Cultural Centre, Dubbo, Australia; Wagga Wagga Art Gallery, Wagga Wagga, Australia; Latrobe Regional Art Gallery, Morwell, Australia; travels to Ipswich Art Gallery, Ipswich, UK.
Take It or Leave It: Institution, Image, Ideology, Hammer Museum, Los Angeles, CA.
To Have and to Hold, Rubell Collection, Miami, FL.
UNE HISTOIRE (art archi design/des années 80 à nos jours) / A HISTORY (art architecture design, from the 80s to now), Centre Pompidou, Paris, France (catalogue).

2013 Black and White, Galerie Sho Contemporary Art, Tokyo, Japan.
Black Is, Black Ain’t, The Renaissance Society, Chicago, IL (catalogue).
Brothers and Sisters, The Studio Museum In Harlem, Harlem, NY.
Cinematic Visions: Painting at the Edge of Reality, Victoria Miro Gallery, London, UK.
Color Blind: The MCA Collection in Black and White, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, IL.
Each One As She May: Ligon, Reich, & De Keersmaeker, Institute of Contemporary Art at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (brochure).
Fiction/Nonfiction, Esker Foundation, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (brochure).
Finish Fetish: Textural Play, Vivian Horan Fine Art, New York, NY.
I, YOU, WE, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY.
In A Silent Way, Seattle Art Museum, WA.
Network of Mutuality: 50 Years Post-Birmingham, The Art Gallery, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (catalogue); Levine Museum of the New South, Charlotte, NC.
NYC 1993: Experimental Jet Set, Trash and No Star, New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York, NY (catalogue).
Postscript: Writing After Conceptual Art, MCA Denver, Denver, CO.
Recent Editions/Recent Additions, Greg Kucera Gallery, Seattle, WA.
Speak, Memory, Wallach Gallery, Columbia University, New York, NY (brochure).
The Unphotographable, Fraenkel Gallery, San Francisco, CA (catalogue).
We Hold These Truths…, Hofstra University Museum, Hempstead, NY.
Word and Image, Hood Museum of Art at Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH.

2012 At the Crossroads: Exploring Black Identity in Contemporary Art, Saint Louis Art Museum, MO.
Blues For Smoke, MOCA, Los Angeles, CA (catalogue); traveled to Whitney Museum, New York, NY.
Contact: Gordon Parks, Ralph Ellison, and “Invisible Man” curated by Glenn Ligon, Howard Greenberg Gallery, New York (curatorial project).
Decade: Contemporary Collecting 2002-2012, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY.
Invisible: Art about the Unseen, 1957-2012, Hayward Gallery, London, UK (catalogue).
Material Assumptions: Paper as Dialogue, Center for Book and Paper Arts, Columbia College Chicago, Chicago, IL.
Material, curated by Duro Olowu, Salon 94 Freemans, New York, NY.
New to the Print Collection: Matisse to Bourgeois, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.
Painting in Space: An Exhibition to Benefit CCS Bard, Luhring Augustine Gallery, New York, NY.
Regarding Warhol: Sixty Artists, Fifty Years, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY (catalogue).
Self-Portraits, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Humlebaek, Denmark.
Terrain: Selected Works from the Collection, Linda Pace Foundation, San Antonio, TX.
Text as Image: Mel Bochner, Graham Gillmore, Glenn Ligon, Senior & Shopmaker, New York, NY.
The Annual 2012. National Academy, New York, NY.
The Expanding Grid, Churchill P. Lathrop Gallery, Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH.
The Painting Factory, Los Angeles MOCA, Los Angeles, CA (catalogue).
The Residue of Memory, Aspen Art Museum, Aspen, CO.
Weighted Words, Zabludowicz Collection, London, UK (catalogue).

2011 12th Istanbul Biennial (catalogue).
After Hours: Murals on the Bowery, New York, NY.
American Exuberance, Rubell Family Collection, Miami, FL (catalogue).
ARTiculate: Links Between Visual and Verbal Expression, Camden Stedman Gallery, Rutgers University, NJ.
Black Swan: The Exhibition, Regen Projects, Los Angeles, CA.
Distant Star/Estrella Distante, Kurimanzutto, Mexico City; Regen Projects, Los Angeles, CA.
Face Off: Portraits by Contemporary Artists, Lyman Allyn Art Museum, New London, CT.
Human Nature: Contemporary Art from the Collection, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, CA.
If you Lived Here You’d be Home, Curated by Josiah McElheny, Tom Eccles and Lynne Cook, CCS Bard Hessel Museum, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY (brochure).
Jean Genet, Nottingham Contemporary, Nottingham, UK.
Legacy: The Emily Fisher Landau Collection, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY.
Mixed Messages, La MaMa Galleria, New York, NY.
Nothing in the World But Youth, Turner Contemporary, Kent, UK (catalogue).
Robert Mapplethorpe: Night Works, Alison Jacques Gallery, London, UK.
Seeing Gertrude Stein: Five Stories, Contemporary Jewish Museum, San Francisco, CA (catalogue); the National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C.
T_XT_RT, Jenkins Johnson Gallery, New York, NY.
The Bearden Project, The Studio Museum In Harlem, Harlem, NY (catalogue).
The Last First Decade, Ellipse Foundation, Portugal.
We Will Live, We Will See, Zabludowicz Collection, London (brochure).

2010 Afro Modern: Journeys through the Black Atlantic, Tate Liverpool, UK (catalogue); Centro Galego de Arte Contemporánea (CGAC), Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
America: Now + Here, a travelling exhibition in multiple expandable trucks, in many US Cities including Kansas City, Detroit, and Chicago, and Aspen, curated by Eric Fischl (catalogue).
Collecting Biennials, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY.
Contemporary Art from the Collection, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.
Desire, The Jack S. Blanton Museum of Art, University of Texas at Austin (catalogue).
Embodied: black identities in American art from the Yale University Art Gallery, David C. Driskell Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD; traveled to Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, CT (catalogue).
From Then to Now: Masterworks of Contemporary African American Art, Museum of Contemporary Art, Cleveland, OH.
HIDE/SEEK: Difference and Desire in American Portraiture, Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, NY (catalogue).
Imitation and Invention, Davison Art Center, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT.
Library of Babel, Zabludowicz Collection, London, UK (catalogue).
Living with Art: Collecting Contemporary in Metro New York, Neuberger Museum of Art, Purchase, NY.
Minima Moralia, Marvelli Gallery, New York, NY.
Mixed Use, Manhattan: Photography and Related Practices 1970s to the Present, Renia Sofia, Madrid, Spain (catalogue).
Picture Industry (Goodbye to All That), Regen Projects, Los Angeles, CA.
Self-Consciousness, VeneKlasen/Werner, Berlin, Germany.
Substitute Teacher, Atlanta Contemporary Arts Center, GA.
Territories, Left of Center, The Luckman Fine Arts Complex, Los Angeles, CA.
This Girl Bends: Art and Feminism since 1960, Williams College Museum of Art, Williamstown, MA.
Twenty Five, Luhring Augustine, New York, NY.
Until Now: Collecting the New (1960–2010), Minneapolis Institute of Arts, MN.

2009 30 Seconds off an Inch, The Studio Museum in Harlem, NY (catalogue).
A Subject Full of Suggestion, Selected works from the Latner Family Collection, Georgia Scherman Projects, Toronto, Ontario.
Beg, Borrow and Steal, Rubell Family Collection, Miami, FL (catalogue).
Between Art and Life: Contemporary Works from the Collection, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, CA.
Collected: Propositions on the Permanent Collection, The Studio Museum in Harlem, NY.
Commentary, Paula Cooper Gallery, New York, NY.
Connections, Jenkins Johnson, New York/San Francisco.
Exposed! – Revealing Sources in Contemporary Art, Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington, DE.
Extended Family: Contemporary Connections, Brooklyn Museum, NY.
FAX, Independent Curators International (ICI), New York, NY, and The Drawing Center, New York, NY (catalogue); Contemporary Museum, Baltimore, MD; Plug in ICA, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; Torrance Art Museum, CA; Para/Site Art Space, Hong Kong; Burnaby Art Gallery, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada; Museo de Arte Carrillo Gil, Mexico City, Mexico; Dowd Gallery, State University of New York College at Cortland; New Galerie, Paris, France.
I.D.: Individual Demographics, Greg Kucera Gallery, Seattle, WA.
Infinitesimal Eternity, 32 Edgewood Avenue Gallery, Yale School of Art (catalogue).
Racism: An American Family Value, The Center for Book Arts, New York, NY (catalogue).
Reflection: a video program, Gallery 400, University of Illinois at Chicago.
Word, William Shearburn Gallery, Saint Louis, MO.

2008 30 Americans, Rubell Family Collection, Miami, FL (catalogue); Corcoran Gallery, Washington D.C.
A Collaborative Effort, Bill Hodges Gallery, New York, NY.
Across the Divide: Reconsidering the Other, Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL (catalogue); Illinois State Museum, Chicago.
African-American Master Artists, Bill Hodges Gallery, New York, NY.
Archive Fever: Uses of the Document in Contemporary Art, International Center of Photography, New York, NY (catalogue).
Black Is, Black Ain’t, The Renaissance Society at The University of Chicago, IL; H&R Block Artspace, Kansas City Art Institute, MO.
Confronting History: Contemporary Artists Envision the Past, Middlebury College Museum of Art, Middlebury, VT.
Eminent Domain: Contemporary Photography and the City, Gottesman Exhibition Hall, Humanities and Social Sciences Library, The New York Public Library, NY (catalogue).
Here Is Every. Four Decades of Contemporary Art, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.
Intimacy, The Fireplace Project, East Hampton, NY.
Listen Darling . . . The World is Yours, Ellipse Foundation Art Centre, Cascais, Portugal.
More Than Words, Von Lintel Gallery, New York, NY.
Notations: The Closing Decade, Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA (brochure).
On the Road/Position Papers/Insertions: The 7th Gwangju Biennale, South Korea (catalogue).
Progress, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY.
The Summer Exhibition, Bill Hodges Gallery, New York, NY.
The Wizard of Oz, CCA Wattis Institute for Contemporary Arts, San Francisco, CA (catalogue).
Under Pain of Death, Austrian Cultural Forum in association with the Center for the Study of Human Rights, New York, NY (catalogue).
Working History: African American Art & Objects. Douglas F. Cooley Memorial Art Gallery, Reed College, Portland, OR.
You & Me, Sometimes . . . , Lehmann Maupin Gallery, New York, NY.

2007 Art in America: Three Hundred Years of Innovation, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation and the Terra Foundation for American Art (catalogue); National Art Museum of China, Beijing; Shanghai Museum and the Museum of Contemporary Art, Shanghai, China [as Art in America: Now]; Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, Russia; Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Spain.
ART PROTECTS, Galerie Yvon Lambert, Paris, France.
Collected Identities: Gifts from the Blake Byrne Collection, Nasher Museum of Art, Duke University, Durham, NC.
Contemporary Art from the Harvard University Art Museums Collections, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Fast Forward: Contemporary Collections for the Dallas Museum of Art [Part II], Dallas Museum of Art, TX (catalogue).
For the Love of the Game: Race and Sport in America, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, CT.
Gallery Artists, Regen Projects, Los Angeles, CA.
Learn to Read, Tate Modern, London, UK.
Lines, Grids, Stains, Words: Minimal Art Drawings from the Collection of The Museum of Modern Art, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY (catalogue); Museu de Arte Contemporânea de Serralves, Porto, Portugal; Museum Wiesbaden, Germany.
Mario Testino: At Home, Yvon Lambert Gallery, New York, NY.
Modern Times: Alumni Collect, Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick, ME.
Not For Sale, P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center, Long Island City, NY.
Novel Readings, Center for Curatorial Studies Galleries, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY.
The Paintings of Mike Cloud: In Celebration of Black History Month, Lincoln Center Gallery, New York, NY, Lincoln Center Gallery, Fordham University, New York.
Paper Trail: A Decade of Acquisitions, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN.
Paper, Fisher Landau Center for Art, Long Island City, NY.
Read Me! Text in Art, Armory Center for the Arts, Pasadena, CA.
Repicturing the Past/Picturing the Present, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.
Simply Red, The Fabric Workshop and Museum, Philadelphia, PA.
Sparkle Then Fade, Tacoma Art Museum, WA.
Substance & Surface, Bortolami Gallery, New York, NY.
Taking Aim: Selections from the Elliot L. Perry Collection, Clough-Hanson Gallery, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN.
What is Painting? Contemporary Art from the Collection, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.

2006 black alphabet: conTEXTS of contemporary african-american art, Zacheta National Gallery of Art, Warsaw, Poland (catalogue).
Collective Histories/Collective Memories: California Modern, Orange County Museum of Art, Newport Beach, CA.
Dark Places, Santa Monica Museum of Art, Los Angeles, CA (catalogue).
Defamation of Character, P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center, Long Island City, NY.
Down by Law, curated by The Wrong Gallery, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY (catalogue).
Ernest C. Withers and Glenn Ligon: I Am A Man, Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis, MO.
Exhibition of Work by Newly Elected Members and Recipients of Honors and Awards, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York, NY.
Expressing Identity: American Prints Since 1980, Sheldon Museum of Art (formerly Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery), University of Nebraska–Lincoln.
Gifts Go in One Direction, Apexart, New York, NY (brochure).
Group Dynamic: Portfolios, Series, and Sets, Des Moines Art Center, IA.
Interstellar Low Ways, Hyde Park Art Center, Chicago, IL.
Invitational Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York, NY.
Legacies: Contemporary Artists Reflect on Slavery, New-York Historical Society, New York, NY (catalogue).
Open House, Centro Cultural de Cascais, Cascais, Portugal; Ellipse Foundation Art Centre, Cascais, Portugal.
Process and Collaboration: Celebrating Twelve Years at 1315 Cherry Street, The Fabric Workshop and Museum, Philadelphia, PA.
Remix Identity and Abstraction, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY.
Skin Is a Language, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY.
SUBJECT, Lyman Allyn Museum, New London, CT.
The Past Made Present: Contemporary Art and Memory, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, TX.
Voodoo Macbeth, Brighton Photo Biennial, De La Warr Pavilion, Bexhill-on-Sea, East Sussex, UK (catalogue).
Yes Bruce Nauman, Zwirner and Wirth, New York, NY.

2005 A Brief History of Invisible Art, Logan Galleries, CCA Wattis Institute for Contemporary Arts, San Francisco, CA (catalogue).
A Thousand Words, Inman Gallery, Houston, TX.
African American Art: Masterworks of Contemporary Art, Saint Louis Art Museum, MO.
Beauford Delaney in Context: Selections from the Collection, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA.
Between Image and Concept: Recent Acquisitions in African American Art, Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, NJ.
Collection Remixed, The Bronx Museum of the Arts, NY (catalogue).
Double Consciousness: Black Conceptual Art Since 1970, Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, TX (catalogue).
Drawing from the Modern, 1975–2005, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY (catalogue).
Getting Emotional, Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, MA (catalogue).
Landscape, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY.
Linkages and Themes in the African Diaspora: Selections from the Eileen Harris Norton and Peter Norton Contemporary Collections, Museum of the African Diaspora, San Francisco, CA.
Looking at Words: The Formal Use of Text in Modern and Contemporary Works on Paper, Andrea Rosen Gallery, New York, NY.
New Art, New York: Reflexionen zur menschlichen Existenz, Trierenberg Art, Traun, Austria.
ROMANCE [a novel], Cristina Guerra Contemporary Art, Lisbon, Portugal (catalogue).
Shades of Black(ness), Davison Art Center, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT.
The Painted Word: Language as Image in Modern Art, Williams Center for the Arts Gallery, Lafayette College, Easton, PA (brochure).
The Shape of Time, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN.
Very Early Pictures, Luckman Gallery, California State University, Los Angeles, CA; Arcadia University Gallery, Glenside, PA.
Wordplay: Text and Image from 1950 to Now, Davison Art Center, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT.

2004 American Art on Paper from the 1960s to Present: Selections from the Permanent Collection, Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington University in St. Louis, MO.
Experiments with Truth, The Fabric Workshop and Museum, Philadelphia, PA (catalogue).
Glenn Ligon: Runaways, Rhode Island School of Design Museum, Providence, RI.
Great White, Center for Curatorial Studies Museum, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY.
Love/Hate: From Magritte to Cattelan, Masterpieces from the Collection of the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, Villa Manin di Passariano, Italy (catalogue).
neoqueer: new visual art by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender artists, Center on Contemporary Art (COCA), Seattle, WA.
Open House: Working in Brooklyn, Brooklyn Museum, NY (catalogue).
Remembering, Sweeney Art Gallery, University of California, Riverside.
Robert Colescott & Glenn Ligon from the Logan Collection, University of Denver Victoria H. Myhren Gallery, CO (catalogue).
Singular Forms (Sometimes Repeated): Art from 1951 to the Present, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY (catalogue).
Super-Sized: The Big Print Show, Greg Kucera Gallery, Seattle, WA.

2003 The Alumni Show: In Celebration of the Thirtieth Anniversary of the Center for the Arts, Wesleyan University, Ezra and Cecile Zilkha Gallery, Center for the Arts, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT (brochure).
A Century of Collecting: African American Art in the Art Institute of Chicago, Art Institute of Chicago, IL (catalogue).
American Art Today: Faces and Figures, The Patricia & Phillip Frost Art Museum (formerly The Art Museum at FIU), Florida International University, Miami (catalogue).
An American Legacy: Art from the Studio Museum in Harlem, The Parrish Art Museum, Southampton, NY.
Crimes and Misdemeanors: Politics in U.S. Art of the 1980s, Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati, OH.
The Disembodied Spirit, Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick, ME (catalogue); Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City, MO; Austin Museum of Art, TX.
DL: The “Down Low” in Contemporary Art, Longwood Art Gallery @ Hostos, Hostos Community College, Bronx, NY.
Drawing Modern: Works from the Agnes Gund Collection, Cleveland Museum of Art, OH (catalogue).
Family Ties, Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA (catalogue).
Fast Forward: 20 Years of White Rooms, White Columns, New York, NY (catalogue).
The Harlem Renaissance and Its Legacy, Worcester Art Museum, MA, January (brochure).
Influence, Anxiety, and Gratitude, MIT List Visual Arts Center, Cambridge, MA.
On the Wall: Wallpaper and Tableau, The Fabric Workshop and Museum, Philadelphia, PA (catalogue).
Only Skin Deep: Changing Visions of the American Self, International Center of Photography, New York, NY (catalogue); Seattle Art Museum, WA.
The Paper Sculpture Show, Independent Curators International (ICI), New York (catalogue); Sculpture Center, Long Island City, NY; Regina Gouger Miller Gallery, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA; DiverseWorks, Houston, TX; Contemporary Art Center of Virginia, Virginia Beach; Hunter Museum of American Art, Chattanooga, TN; Gallery 400, University of Illinois at Chicago; The Ballroom, Marfa, TX; Orange County Museum of Art, Newport Beach, CA; Salina Art Center, Salina, KS; Dunlop Art Gallery, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada; Memorial Art Gallery, University of Rochester, NY; Art Interactive, Boston, MA; Legion Arts, Cedar Rapids, IA; Coral Springs Museum of Art, Coral Springs, FL; University of Virgina Art Museum, Charlottesville; Purdue University Galleries, West Lafayette, IN; Atlanta Contemporary Art Center, GA; Contemporary Arts Center Cincinnati, OH; Austin Museum of Art, TX; Kresge Art Museum, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
Skin Deep, Numark Gallery, Washington, DC (brochure).
Stranger in the Village: Contemporary Drawings and Photographs from The Museum of Modern Art, Guild Hall, East Hampton, NY.
Structures of Difference, Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford, CT.
Supernova: Art of the 1990s from the Logan Collection, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, CA (catalogue).
The Space Between: Artists Engaging Race and Syncretism, Davis Museum and Cultural Center, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA.
The Squared Circle: Boxing in Contemporary Art, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN (catalogue).
Today’s Man, John Connelly Presents, New York, NY; Hiromi Yoshii Gallery, Tokyo, Japan.
Visual Poetics: Art and the Word, Miami Art Museum, FL (brochure).
Visualizing Identity, The Jack S. Blanton Museum of Art, University of Texas at Austin.

2002 Documenta 11, Platform 5, Kassel, Germany (catalogue).
Drawings of Choice from a New York Collection, Krannert Art Museum, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (catalogue); Arkansas Arts Center, Little Rock; Georgia Museum of Art, University of Georgia, Athens; Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick, ME; Cincinnati Art Museum, OH.
Fifty Years of Supporting the New: The Charles H. Carpenter Jr. Collection, Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art, Ridgefield, CT.
In the Spirit of Martin: The Living Legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (catalogue); Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History, Detroit, MI; Bass Museum of Art, Miami Beach, FL; Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum, Minneapolis, MN; International Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC; Memphis Brooks Museum of Art, Memphis, TN; Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts, AL.
Life, Death, Love, Hate, Pleasure, Pain: Selected Works from the MCA Collection, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, IL (catalogue).
Moving Pictures: Contemporary Photography and Video from the Guggenheim Museum Collections, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY (catalogue); Guggenheim Museum Bilbao.
New York Renaissance: Masterworks from the Collection of the Whitney Museum of American Art, Palazzo Reale, Milan, Italy (catalogue).
New York, New Work, Now!, Currier Museum of Art, Manchester, NH.
People See Paintings: Photography and Painting from the MCA Collection, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, IL.
Recent Acquisitions, Fonds Régional d’Art Contemporain, Reims, France.
Tempo, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY (catalogue).
time/frame, The Jack S. Blanton Museum of Art, University of Texas at Austin (catalogue).

2001 A Private Reading: The Book As Image & Object, Senior & Shopmaker Gallery, New York, NY.
A Way with Words: Selections from the Whitney Museum of American Art, Whitney Museum of American Art at Philip Morris, New York, NY (brochure).
Camera Works: The Photographic Impulse in Contemporary Art, Marianne Boesky Gallery, New York, NY.
Digital: Printmaking Now, Brooklyn Museum of Art, NY (catalogue).
Drawing on Language, SPACES, Cleveland, OH (catalogue).
Everybody Now: The Crowd in Contemporary Art, The Bertha and Karl Leubsdorf Art Gallery at Hunter College, New York, NY (catalogue).
Kinds of Drawing, Herter Art Gallery, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (brochure).
Monochrome/Monochrome?, Florence Lynch Gallery, New York, NY.
New to the Modern: Recent Acquisitions from the Department of Drawings, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.
Race in Digital Space, MIT List Visual Arts Center, Cambridge, MA (catalogue); The Studio Museum in Harlem, NY; Spelman College Museum of Fine Art, Atlanta, GA.
Red, Black and Green, The Studio Museum in Harlem, NY.
Rembrandt to Rauschenberg: Building the Collection, The Jack S. Blanton Museum of Art, University of Texas at Austin (catalogue).
Song Poems, Cohan Leslie and Browne Gallery, New York, NY.
Subject Plural: Crowds in Contemporary Art, Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, TX (catalogue).
Take Two/Reprise, Ottawa Art Gallery, Ontario, Canada, April 26–June 24 (brochure).
Works on Paper: From Acconci to Zittel, Victoria Miro Gallery, London, UK.

2000 3rd Gwangju Biennale: Man and Space, Gwangju, South Korea (catalogue).
Age of Influence: Reflections in the Mirror of American Culture, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, IL.
AutoWerke, Deichtorhallen, Hamburg, Germany, November 10 (catalogue).
Drawings & Photographs: Foundation for Contemporary Performing Arts Benefit Exhibition, Matthew Marks Gallery, New York, NY.
Dream Machines, Hayward Gallery, South Bank Centre, London, for the Arts Council of England (catalogue); Dundee Contemporary Arts, Scotland; Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield, UK; Camden Arts Centre, London, UK.
“Good Business Is the Best Art”: Twenty Years of the Artist in the Marketplace Program, The Bronx Museum of the Arts, New York (CD-ROM).
Looking Forward, Looking Black, Elaine L. Jacob Gallery, Wayne State University, Detroit (catalogue); Houghton House Gallery, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY; Weatherspoon Art Gallery, University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Scottsdale Museum of Contemporary Art, Scottsdale, AZ; Yager Museum, Hartwick College, Oneonta, NY; Georgia State University School of Art and Design Gallery, Atlanta; Aidekman Arts Center, Tufts University, Boston, MA; Ezra and Cecile Zilkha Gallery, Center for the Arts, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT; Ben Maltz Gallery, Otis College of Art and Design, Los Angeles, CA; Victoria H, Myhren Gallery, University of Denver, CO; Baltimore Museum of Art, MD; Dayton Art Institute, Dayton, OH; YMI Cultural Center, Asheville, NC.
The Marriage of Reason and Squalor, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.
Open Ends: White Spectrum, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY (brochure).
Point of Reference: Frederick Hayes, Glenn Ligon, Gary Simmons, Kara Walker, Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, MA.
Pollock to Today: Highlights from the Permanent Collection, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY.
Refresh: The Art of the Screensaver, Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for the Visual Arts at Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.
Strength and Diversity: A Celebration of African-American Artists, Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

1999 The American Century: Art & Culture Part II 1950–2000, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY (catalogue).
Calendar 2000, Center for Curatorial Studies Museum, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY.
Collectors Collect Contemporary: 1990–99, Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, MA (catalogue).
Compliments, Ernest Rubenstein Gallery, The Educational Alliance, New York, NY.
Con(text): Words, Texts, and Meaning in the Permanent Collection, The Bronx Museum of the Arts, NY.
Contemporary Narratives in American Prints, Whitney Museum of American Art at Champion, Stamford, CT (brochure).
Crosscurrents: New Art from MoMA, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, New York (catalogue); Hara Museum of Contemporary Art, Tokyo, Japan.
Drawing in the Present Tense, Arnold and Sheila Aronson Gallery, Parsons School of Design, New York, NY (catalogue); Julian Akus Gallery, Eastern Connecticut State University, Willimantic, CT.
The Ecstatic, Trans Hudson Gallery, New York, NY.
Glenn Ligon/Kara Walker, Brent Sikkema Gallery, New York, NY (brochure).
Life Cycles, Galerie für Zeitgenössische Kunst Leipzig, Germany (catalogue).
Negotiating Small Truths, The Jack S. Blanton Museum of Art, University of Texas at Austin (catalogue).
Other Narratives, Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, TX (catalogue); ArtPace, San Antonio, TX [as Some Other Narratives].
Spaced Out: Late 1990s Works from the Vicki and Kent Logan Collection, California College of Arts and Crafts, San Francisco, CA (catalogue).

1998 100 Years of Sculpture: From the Pedestal to the Pixel, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN (catalogue).
A Portrait of Our Times: An Introduction to the Logan Collection, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California (catalogue).
Cleveland Collects Contemporary Art, Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH.
Cut on the Bias: Social Projects of the 90’s from the Permanent Collection, The Fabric Workshop and Museum, Philadelphia, PA.
Exterminating Angel, Galerie Ghislaine Hussenot, Paris.
Hindsight: Selections from the Permanent Collection, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY.
Histories (Re)membered: Selections from the Permanent Collection of The Bronx Museum of the Arts, Paine Webber Art Gallery, New York, NY.
I’m Still In Love With You: Visual Artists and Writers Respond to the 1972 Album by Al Green, Women’s 20th Century Club, Eagle Rock, CA.
Miami Arts Project. Miami, FL (brochure).
Núcleo Historico, XXIV Bienal de São Paulo, Brazil (catalogue).
Postcards from Black America, Breda, De Bayerd Museum, The Netherlands (catalogue).

1997 A Decade of Collecting: Selected Recent Acquisitions in Contemporary Drawing, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY (brochure).
Blind Spot: Coming of Age, White Columns.
Civil Progress: Life in Black America, Greg Kucera Gallery, Seattle, WA (catalogue).
From Brixton to the South Bank, public installation, London Printworks Trust, UK (brochure).
Heart, Mind, Body, Soul: American Art in the 1990’s, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY.
Heaven: Public View, Private View, PS.1. Contemporary Art Center, New York, NY.
Identity Crisis: Self-Portraiture at the End of the Century, Milwaukee Art Museum, WI (catalogue); Aspen Art Museum, CO.
Kimchi Xtravaganza, Korean American Museum, Los Angeles, CA (catalogue).
Kind of Abstract, Seattle Art Museum, WA.
Presente/Passato/Futuro: XLVII Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte, La Biennale di Venezia, Venice (catalogue).
Rhapsodies in Black, Hayward Gallery, South Bank Centre, London, UK (catalogue); Arnolfini Gallery, Bristol, UK; The Mead Gallery, Coventry, UK; California Palace of the Legion of Honor, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA; The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington DC.
Sunny Days / Critical Times, The Bohen Foundation, New York, NY.
The Dual Muse: The Writer As Artist, The Artist As Writer, Washington University Gallery of Art, St. Louis, MO (catalogue).
Thirty-Third Annual Exhibition of Art on Paper, Weatherspoon Art Gallery, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (catalogue).
Un Bel été, Casino Luxembourg, Luxembourg (catalogue).

1996 10th Biennale of Sydney: Jurassic Technologies Revenant, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Artspace, and Ivan Dougherty Gallery, Sydney, Australia (catalogue).
a/drift, Center for Curatorial Studies Museum, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY (catalogue).
An American Story, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY.
Art at the End of the 20th Century: Selections from the Whitney Museum of American Art, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (organizer) (catalogue); National Gallery, Alexandros Soutzos Museum, Athens, Greece; Museu d’Art Contemporani, Barcelona, Spain; Kunstmuseum Bonn, Germany [as Multiple Identity: Amerikanische Kunst 1975–1995 aus dem Whitney Museum of American Art].
Burning Issues: Contemporary African-American Art, Museum of Art, Fort Lauderdale, FL (brochure).
Community of Creativity: A Century of MacDowell Colony Artists, The Currier Gallery of Art, Manchester, NH (catalogue); National Academy of Design, New York, NY; Wichita Art Museum, KS.
Exit festival, Maison des Arts de la Culture, Paris-Creteil, France.
Hotter Than July, Margo Leavin Gallery, Los Angeles, CA.
In the Flesh, The Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art, Ridgefield, CT (catalogue).
Inklusion/Exklusion: Versuch einer neuen Kartografie der Kunst um Zeitalter von Postkolonialismus und globaler Migration [Inclusion/Exclusion: Attempt for a New Cartography of Art in the Age of Post-Colonialism and Global Migration], Steirischer Herbst ’96, Graz, Austria (catalogue).
The Inner Eye: Art Beyond the Visible, Hayward Gallery, South Bank Centre, London, UK (catalogue); City Art Galleries, Manchester, UK; Museum and Art Gallery, Brighton, UK; Glynn Vivan Art Gallery, Swansea, Wales; Dulwich Picture Gallery, London, UK.
The Mediated Object: Selections from the Eli Broad Collections, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (catalogue); Forum for Contemporary Art, St. Louis, MO.
On Paper II, Schmidt Contemporary Art, St. Louis, MO.
Prospect 1996, Frankfurt Kunstverein, Germany (catalogue).
Screen, Friedrich Petzel Gallery, New York, NY (video catalogue).
Tangles, Otis College of Art and Design, Los Angeles, CA.
Thinking Print: Books to Billboards, 1980–95, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY (catalogue).

1995 25 Americans: Painting in the 90s, Milwaukee Art Museum, WI (catalogue).
Articulations: Forms of Language, Whitney Museum of American Art (organizer), Fisher Landau Center, Long Island City, NY (brochure).
Boxer, Walsall Museum and Art Gallery, Walsall, UK (catalogue); Oldham Art Gallery, Oldham, UK; Aspex Gallery, Portsmouth, UK; Centre for Contemporary Arts, Glasgow, Scotland.
Configura 2: Dialog der Kulturen, Angermuseum, Galerie am Fischmarkt, Erfurt, Germany (catalogue).
Face Forward: Self-Portraiture in Contemporary Art, John Michael Kohler Arts Center, Sheboygan, WI (catalogue).
fag-o-sites, Gallery 400, School of Art and Design, University of Illinois-Chicago.
Glenn Ligon and Gary Simmons, The Fabric Workshop and Museum, Philadelphia, PA (brochure); Beaver College Art Gallery, Glenside, PA.
In a Different Light, University of California, Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive (catalogue).
The Masculine Masquerade: Masculinity and Representation, MIT List Visual Arts Center (catalogue).
Mirage: Enigmas of Race, Difference and Desire, Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, UK (catalogue).
Pervert, The Art Gallery, The University of California, Irvine (brochure).
Telling Tales, The Rotunda Gallery, Brooklyn, NY (brochure).
Word for Word, Beaver College Art Gallery, Glenside, PA.
XI Mostra da Gravura Cidade de Curitiba/Mostra America, Curitiba, Brazil (catalogue).

1994 Black Male: Representations of Masculinity in Contemporary American Art, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY (catalogue); Hammer Museum, Los Angeles (formerly the Armand Hammer Museum of Art and Cultural Center, UCLA).
Dark O’Clock, Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Plug in ICA (formerly known as Plug In Inc., Video Pool, Ace Art), Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada (catalogue).
Don’t Look Now, Thread Waxing Space, New York, NY (catalogue).
Drama, Max Protetch Gallery, New York, NY.
Duchamp’s Leg, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN; Center for the Fine Arts, Miami, FL (brochure).
Equal Rights & Justice: Reflections on Rights, High Museum of Art, Atlanta, GA; The Center for African American History & Culture, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.
The Label Show: Contemporary Art and the Museum, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA (brochure).
The Magic Magic Book, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY (catalogue).
New Painting: Feinstein, Ligon, Reed, Max Protetch Gallery, New York, NY.
Oliver Herring, Byron Kim, Glenn Ligon, Galerie Gilles Peyroulet, Paris, France.
Physical Evidence, Lehman College Art Gallery, Bronx, NY.
Stories, Max Protetch Gallery, New York, NY.
Transformers: The Art of Multiphrenia, Independent Curators Incorporated (ICI) (catalogue); Center for Curatorial Studies Museum, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY; Decker Galleries, Maryland Institute College of Art, Baltimore; Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY; Nexus Contemporary Art Center, Atlanta, GA; Art Gallery of Windsor, Ontario, Canada; Illingworth Kerr Art Gallery, Alberta College of Art and Design, Calgary, Canada.

1993 1993 Biennial Exhibition, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY (catalogue); National Museum of Contemporary Art, Seoul, South Korea.
42nd Street Art Street Project, Creative Time (organizer), Times Square, New York, NY (brochure).
Black & White: Paintings by Jerald Ieans, Julian Lethbridge, Glenn Ligon, David Ortins, Harvey Tulcensky and Christopher Wool, Schmidt Contemporary Art, St. Louis, MO.
Byron Kim & Glenn Ligon: Collaborations, A/C Project Room, New York, NY.
Drawing the Line Against AIDS, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, Italy (catalogue).
Drucksache/Prints and Issues, Kunst-Werke Berlin, Germany.
The Ever Present Moment: Contemporary Drawing, Ringling School of Art and Design, Sarasota, FL.
Everyday Life, Kim Light Gallery, Los Angeles, CA.
Extravagant: The Economy of Elegance, Russisches Kulturzentrum, Berlin, Germany.
In Transit, New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York, NY (brochure).
Markets of Resistance, White Columns, New York, NY (brochure).
Myths & Legends As Told and Retold, Barbara Krakow Gallery, Boston, MA.
The Return of the ‘. .Exquis,’ The Drawing Center, New York, NY (catalogue); The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; Santa Monica Museum of Art, CA; Forum for Contemporary Art, St. Louis, MO.

1992 A New American Flag, Max Protetch Gallery, New York, NY.
All Words Suck, Anders Tornberg Gallery, Lund, Sweden.
Allegories of Modernism: Contemporary Drawings, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY (catalogue).
Doubletake: Collective Memory and Current Art, Hayward Gallery, South Bank Centre, London, UK (catalogue); Kunsthalle Vienna, Austria.
Dream Singers, Story Tellers: An African-American Presence, Prefecture of Fukui, Japan, and New Jersey Department of State (organizers) (catalogue); Fukui Fine Arts Museum, Fukui City, Japan; The Tokushima Modern Art Museum, Tokushima City, Japan; Otani Memorial Art Museum, Nishinomiya City, Japan; New Jersey State Museum, Trenton.
Knowledge: Aspects of Conceptual Art, University Art Museum, University of California, Santa Barbara (catalogue); Santa Monica Museum of Art, CA; North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh.
Malcolm X: Man, Ideal, Icon, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN (brochure), Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, MA; The Valentine Richmond History Center, Richmond, VA; Anacostia Museum, Washington D.C.; Nexus Contemporary Art Center, Atlanta, GA; Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco, CA.
Mistaken Identities, University Art Museum, University of California, Santa Barbara (catalogue); Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany; Forum Stadtpark, Graz, Austria; Neues Museum Weserburg Bremen im Forum Langenstrasse, Bremen, Germany; Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Humlebaek, Denmark.
Slow Art: Painting in New York Now, The Institute for Contemporary Art, P.S.1 Museum, Long Island City, NY (brochure).
Somewhere Between Image and Text, Barbara Krakow Gallery, Boston, MA.
Update 1992, White Columns, New York, NY (brochure).
We Interrupt Your Regularly Scheduled ., White Columns, New York, NY (brochure); District of Columbia Arts Center, Washington, DC.

1991 1991 Biennial Exhibition, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY (catalogue).
AIDS, A Community in Crisis, Jamaica Arts Center, Jamaica, NY.
Color Theory, Amelie A. Wallace Gallery, State University of New York College at Old Westbury, NY.
Interrogating Identity, Grey Art Gallery and Study Center, New York University, New York, NY (catalogue); Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN; Madison Art Center, WI; Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, OH.
Language: Body and Dream, P.S. 122, New York, NY.
Positions of Authority, Art in General, New York, NY.
Text out of Context, SoHo Center, New York, NY.

1990 Art of Resistance, El Arte de Resistencia, Galeria El Bohio, New York, NY.
Rutgers National ’90: Works on Paper, Stedman Art Gallery, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Camden (brochure).
$pent: Currency, Security and Art on Deposit, New Museum of Contemporary Art at Marine Midland Bank, New York, NY.
Works on Paper, Salena Art Gallery, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY.

1989 Selections 46, The Drawing Center, New York, NY.

1985 Open Studio, Whitney Museum Independent Study Program, New York, NY.

1984 Artist in the Marketplace, 4th Annual Group Show, The Bronx Museum of the Arts, NY (brochure).

Selected Public Collections

Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo
Art Institute of Chicago
Baltimore Museum of Art
Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh
Centre Pompidou, Paris
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C.
Los Angeles County Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago
Museum of Modern Art, New York
Philadelphia Museum of Art
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
The Studio Museum in Harlem, New York
Tate Modern, London
Walker Art Center, Minneapolis
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York

Selected Images

Double America 2

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